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Oracle® Database Concepts
10g Release 1 (10.1)

Part Number B10743-01
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Part I What Is Oracle?

1 Introduction to the Oracle Database

Oracle Database Architecture
Overview of Oracle Grid Architecture
Oracle Technologies that Enable the Grid
Managing the Grid
Overview of Application Architecture
Client/Server Architecture
Multitier Architecture: Application Servers
Overview of Physical Database Structures
Control Files
Redo Log Files
Archive Log Files
Parameter Files
Alert and Trace Log Files
Backup Files
Overview of Logical Database Structures
Oracle Data Blocks
Overview of Schemas and Common Schema Objects
Overview of the Oracle Data Dictionary
Overview of the Oracle Instance
Real Application Clusters: Multiple Instance Systems
Instance Memory Structures
System Global Area
Program Global Area
Oracle Background Processes
Process Architecture
Overview of Accessing the Database
Network Connections
Starting Up the Database
How Oracle Works
Overview of Oracle Utilities
Oracle Database Features
Overview of Scalability and Performance Features
Read Consistency
Locking Mechanisms
Quiesce Database
Real Application Clusters
Overview of Manageability Features
Self-Managing Database
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Automatic Storage Management
The Scheduler
Database Resource Manager
Overview of Database Backup and Recovery Features
Types of Failures
Structures Used for Recovery
Overview of High Availability Features
Overview of Business Intelligence Features
Data Warehousing
Extraction, Transformation, and Loading (ETL)
Materialized Views
Bitmap Indexes in Data Warehousing
Table Compression
Parallel Execution
Analytic SQL
OLAP Capabilities
Data Mining
Overview of Content Management Features
XML in Oracle
Oracle Text
Oracle Ultra Search
Oracle interMedia
Oracle Spatial
Overview of Security Features
Security Mechanisms
Overview of Data Integrity and Triggers
Integrity Constraints
Overview of Information Integration Features
Distributed SQL
Oracle Streams
Oracle Transparent Gateways and Generic Connectivity
Oracle Database Application Development
Overview of Oracle SQL
SQL Statements
Overview of PL/SQL
PL/SQL Program Units
Overview of Java
Overview of Application Programming Languages (APIs)
Overview of Transactions
Commit and Undo Transactions
Overview of Datatypes
Overview of Globalization

Part II Oracle Database Architecture

2 Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments

Introduction to Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments
Overview of Data Blocks
Data Block Format
Header (Common and Variable)
Table Directory
Row Directory
Row Data
Free Space
Free Space Management
Availability and Optimization of Free Space in a Data Block
Row Chaining and Migrating
PCTFREE, PCTUSED, and Row Chaining
The PCTFREE Parameter
The PCTUSED Parameter
Overview of Extents
When Extents Are Allocated
Determine the Number and Size of Extents
How Extents Are Allocated
When Extents Are Deallocated
Extents in Nonclustered Tables
Extents in Clustered Tables
Extents in Materialized Views and Their Logs
Extents in Indexes
Extents in Temporary Segments
Extents in Rollback Segments
Overview of Segments
Introduction to Data Segments
Introduction to Index Segments
Introduction to Temporary Segments
Operations that Require Temporary Segments
Segments in Temporary Tables and Their Indexes
How Temporary Segments Are Allocated
Introduction to Automatic Undo Management
Undo Mode
Undo Quota
Automatic Undo Retention
External Views

3 Tablespaces, Datafiles, and Control Files

Introduction to Tablespaces, Datafiles, and Control Files
Oracle-Managed Files
Allocate More Space for a Database
Overview of Tablespaces
Bigfile Tablespaces
Benefits of Bigfile Tablespaces
Considerations with Bigfile Tablespaces
The SYSTEM Tablespace
The Data Dictionary
PL/SQL Program Units Description
The SYSAUX Tablespace
Undo Tablespaces
Creation of Undo Tablespaces
Assignment of Undo Tablespaces
Default Temporary Tablespace
How to Specify a Default Temporary Tablespace
Using Multiple Tablespaces
Managing Space in Tablespaces
Locally Managed Tablespaces
Segment Space Management in Locally Managed Tablespaces
Dictionary Managed Tablespaces
Multiple Block Sizes
Online and Offline Tablespaces
Bringing Tablespaces Offline
Use of Tablespaces for Special Procedures
Read-Only Tablespaces
Temporary Tablespaces for Sort Operations
Sort Segments
Creation of Temporary Tablespaces
Transport of Tablespaces Between Databases
How to Move or Copy a Tablespace to Another Database
Overview of Datafiles
Datafile Contents
Size of Datafiles
Offline Datafiles
Temporary Datafiles
Overview of Control Files
Control File Contents
Multiplexed Control Files

4 Transaction Management

Introduction to Transactions
Statement Execution and Transaction Control
Statement-Level Rollback
Resumable Space Allocation
Overview of Transaction Management
Commit Transactions
Rollback of Transactions
Savepoints In Transactions
Transaction Naming
How Transactions Are Named
Commit Comment
The Two-Phase Commit Mechanism
Overview of Autonomous Transactions
Autonomous PL/SQL Blocks
Transaction Control Statements in Autonomous Blocks

5 Schema Objects

Introduction to Schema Objects
Overview of Tables
How Table Data Is Stored
Row Format and Size
Rowids of Row Pieces
Column Order
Table Compression
Using Table Compression
Nulls Indicate Absence of Value
Default Values for Columns
Default Value Insertion and Integrity Constraint Checking
Partitioned Tables
Nested Tables
Temporary Tables
Segment Allocation
Parent and Child Transactions
External Tables
The Access Driver
Data Loading with External Tables
Parallel Access to External Tables
Overview of Views
How Views are Stored
How Views Are Used
Mechanics of Views
Globalization Support Parameters in Views
Use of Indexes Against Views
Dependencies and Views
Updatable Join Views
Object Views
Inline Views
Overview of Materialized Views
Define Constraints on Views
Refresh Materialized Views
Materialized View Logs
Overview of Dimensions
Overview of the Sequence Generator
Overview of Synonyms
Overview of Indexes
Unique and Nonunique Indexes
Composite Indexes
Indexes and Keys
Indexes and Nulls
Function-Based Indexes
Uses of Function-Based Indexes
Optimization with Function-Based Indexes
Dependencies of Function-Based Indexes
How Indexes Are Stored
Format of Index Blocks
The Internal Structure of Indexes
Index Properties
Advantages of B-tree Structure
Index Unique Scan
Index Range Scan
Key Compression
Prefix and Suffix Entries
Performance and Storage Considerations
Uses of Key Compression
Reverse Key Indexes
Bitmap Indexes
Benefits for Data Warehousing Applications
Bitmap Index Example
Bitmap Indexes and Nulls
Bitmap Indexes on Partitioned Tables
Bitmap Join Indexes
Overview of Index-Organized Tables
Benefits of Index-Organized Tables
Index-Organized Tables with Row Overflow Area
Secondary Indexes on Index-Organized Tables
Bitmap Indexes on Index-Organized Tables
Mapping Table
Partitioned Index-Organized Tables
B-tree Indexes on UROWID Columns for Heap- and Index-Organized Tables
Index-Organized Table Applications
Overview of Application Domain Indexes
Overview of Clusters
Overview of Hash Clusters

6 Dependencies Among Schema Objects

Introduction to Dependency Issues
Resolution of Schema Object Dependencies
Compilation of Views and PL/SQL Program Units
Views and Base Tables
Program Units and Referenced Objects
Data Warehousing Considerations
Session State and Referenced Packages
Security Authorizations
Object Name Resolution
Shared SQL Dependency Management
Local and Remote Dependency Management
Management of Local Dependencies
Management of Remote Dependencies
Dependencies Among Local and Remote Database Procedures
Dependencies Among Other Remote Schema Objects
Dependencies of Applications

7 The Data Dictionary

Introduction to the Data Dictionary
Structure of the Data Dictionary
Base Tables
User-Accessible Views
SYS, Owner of the Data Dictionary
How the Data Dictionary Is Used
How Oracle Uses the Data Dictionary
Public Synonyms for Data Dictionary Views
Cache the Data Dictionary for Fast Access
Other Programs and the Data Dictionary
How to Use the Data Dictionary
Views with the Prefix USER
Views with the Prefix ALL
Views with the Prefix DBA
The DUAL Table
Dynamic Performance Tables
Database Object Metadata

8 Memory Architecture

Introduction to Oracle Memory Structures
Overview of the System Global Area
The SGA_MAX_SIZE Initialization Parameter
Automatic Shared Memory Management
The SGA_TARGET Initialization Parameter
Automatically Managed SGA Components
Manually Managed SGA Components
Persistence of Automatically Tuned Values
Adding Granules and Tracking Component Size
Database Buffer Cache
Organization of the Database Buffer Cache
The LRU Algorithm and Full Table Scans
Size of the Database Buffer Cache
Multiple Buffer Pools
Redo Log Buffer
Shared Pool
Library Cache
Shared SQL Areas and Private SQL Areas
PL/SQL Program Units and the Shared Pool
Dictionary Cache
Allocation and Reuse of Memory in the Shared Pool
Large Pool
Java Pool
Streams Pool
Control of the SGA's Use of Memory
Other SGA Initialization Parameters
Physical Memory
SGA Starting Address
Extended Buffer Cache Mechanism
Overview of the Program Global Areas
Content of the PGA
Private SQL Area
Session Memory
SQL Work Areas
PGA Memory Management for Dedicated Mode
Dedicated and Shared Servers
Software Code Areas

9 Process Architecture

Introduction to Processes
Multiple-Process Oracle Systems
Types of Processes
Overview of User Processes
Connections and Sessions
Overview of Oracle Processes
Server Processes
Background Processes
Database Writer Process (DBWn)
Log Writer Process (LGWR)
Checkpoint Process (CKPT)
System Monitor Process (SMON)
Process Monitor Process (PMON)
Recoverer Process (RECO)
Job Queue Processes
Archiver Processes (ARCn)
Queue Monitor Processes (QMNn)
Other Background Processes
Trace Files and the Alert Log
Shared Server Architecture
Dispatcher Request and Response Queues
Dispatcher Processes (Dnnn)
Shared Server Processes (Snnn)
Restricted Operations of the Shared Server
Dedicated Server Configuration
The Program Interface
Program Interface Structure
Program Interface Drivers
Communications Software for the Operating System

10 Application Architecture

Introduction to Client/Server Architecture
Overview of Multitier Architecture
Application Servers
Database Servers
Overview of Oracle Net Services
How Oracle Net Services Works
The Listener
Service Information Registration

11 Oracle Utilities

Introduction to Oracle Utilities
Overview of Data Pump Export and Import
Data Pump Export
Data Pump Import
Overview of the Data Pump API
Overview of the Metadata API
Overview of SQL*Loader
Overview of External Tables
Overview of LogMiner
Overview of DBVERIFY Utility
Overview of DBNEWID Utility

12 Database and Instance Startup and Shutdown

Introduction to an Oracle Instance
The Instance and the Database
Connection with Administrator Privileges
Initialization Parameter Files and Server Parameter Files
How Parameter Values Are Changed
Overview of Instance and Database Startup
How an Instance Is Started
Restricted Mode of Instance Startup
Forced Startup in Abnormal Situations
How a Database Is Mounted
How a Database Is Mounted with Real Application Clusters
How a Standby Database Is Mounted
How a Clone Database Is Mounted
What Happens When You Open a Database
Instance Recovery
Undo Space Acquisition and Management
Resolution of In-Doubt Distributed Transaction
Open a Database in Read-Only Mode
Overview of Database and Instance Shutdown
Close a Database
Close the Database by Terminating the Instance
Unmount a Database
Shut Down an Instance
Abnormal Instance Shutdown

Part III Oracle Database Features

13 Data Concurrency and Consistency

Introduction to Data Concurrency and Consistency in a Multiuser Environment
Preventable Phenomena and Transaction Isolation Levels
Overview of Locking Mechanisms
How Oracle Manages Data Concurrency and Consistency
Multiversion Concurrency Control
Statement-Level Read Consistency
Transaction-Level Read Consistency
Read Consistency with Real Application Clusters
Oracle Isolation Levels
Set the Isolation Level
Read Committed Isolation
Serializable Isolation
Comparison of Read Committed and Serializable Isolation
Transaction Set Consistency
Row-Level Locking
Referential Integrity
Distributed Transactions
Choice of Isolation Level
Read Committed Isolation
Serializable Isolation
Quiesce Database
How Oracle Locks Data
Transactions and Data Concurrency
Modes of Locking
Lock Duration
Data Lock Conversion Versus Lock Escalation
Deadlock Detection
Avoid Deadlocks
Types of Locks
DML Locks
Row Locks (TX)
Table Locks (TM)
DML Locks Automatically Acquired for DML Statements
DDL Locks
Exclusive DDL Locks
Share DDL Locks
Breakable Parse Locks
Duration of DDL Locks
DDL Locks and Clusters
Latches and Internal Locks
Internal Locks
Explicit (Manual) Data Locking
Oracle Lock Management Services
Overview of Oracle Flashback Query
Flashback Query Benefits
Some Uses of Flashback Query

14 Manageability

Installing Oracle and Getting Started
Simplified Database Creation
Instant Client
Automated Upgrades
Basic Initialization Parameters
Data Loading, Transfer, and Archiving
Intelligent Infrastructure
Automatic Workload Repository
Automatic Maintenance Tasks
Server-Generated Alerts
Advisor Framework
Performance Diagnostic and Troubleshooting
Application and SQL Tuning
Memory Management
Space Management
Automatic Undo Management
Oracle-Managed Files
Free Space Management
Proactive Space Management
Intelligent Capacity Planning
Transparent Space Reclamation
Storage Management
Backup and Recovery
Recovery Manager
Mean Time to Recovery
Self Service Error Correction
Configuration Management
Workload Management
Overview of the Database Resource Manager
Database Resource Manager Concepts
Overview of Services
Workload Management with Services
High Availability with Services
Automatic Storage Management
Basic Automatic Storage Management Concepts
Disk Groups
Automatic Storage Management Files
Automatic Storage Management Templates
Automatic Storage Management Disks
Failure Groups
Automatic Storage Management Instances
Benefits of Using Automatic Storage Management
Job Scheduler
What Can the Scheduler Do?
Schedule Job Execution Based on Time
Reuse Scheduler Objects
Schedule Job Processing that Models Business Requirements
Manage and Monitor Jobs
Execute and Manage Jobs in a Clustered Environment
Transfer Files
Basic Scheduler Concepts
Advanced Scheduler Concepts
Job Classes

15 Backup and Recovery

Introduction to Backup
Consistent and Inconsistent Backups
Overview of Consistent Backups
Overview of Inconsistent Backups
Whole Database and Partial Database Backups
Whole Database Backups
Tablespace Backups
Datafile Backups
RMAN and User-Managed Backups
RMAN with Online Backups
Control File Backups
Archived Redo Log Backups
Introduction to Recovery
Overview of Media Recovery
Complete Recovery
Incomplete Recovery
Datafile Media Recovery
Block Media Recovery
Overview of RMAN and User-Managed Restore and Recovery
RMAN Restore and Recovery
User-Managed Restore and Recovery
Recovery Using Oracle Flashback Technology
Overview of Oracle Flashback Database
Overview of Oracle Flashback Table
Other Types of Oracle Recovery
Overview of Redo Application
Overview of Instance and Crash Recovery
Deciding Which Recovery Technique to Use
When to Use Media Recovery
When to Use Oracle Flashback
When to Use Import/Export Utilities Recovery
When to Use Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery
Flash Recovery Area
Flash Recovery Area Disk Limit

16 Business Intelligence

Introduction to Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence
Characteristics of Data Warehousing
Subject Oriented
Time Variant
Differences Between Data Warehouse and OLTP Systems
Data Modifications
Schema Design
Typical Operations
Historical Data
Data Warehouse Architecture
Data Warehouse Architecture (Basic)
Data Warehouse Architecture (with a Staging Area)
Data Warehouse Architecture (with a Staging Area and Data Marts)
Overview of Extraction, Transformation, and Loading (ETL)
Transportable Tablespaces
Table Functions
External Tables
Table Compression
Change Data Capture
Overview of Materialized Views for Data Warehouses
Overview of Bitmap Indexes in Data Warehousing
Overview of Parallel Execution
How Parallel Execution Works
Overview of Analytic SQL
SQL for Aggregation
SQL for Analysis
SQL for Modeling
Overview of OLAP Capabilities
Benefits of OLAP and RDBMS Integration
Backup and Recovery
Overview of Data Mining

17 High Availability

Introduction to High Availability
Overview of Unplanned Downtime
Oracle Solutions to System Failures
Overview of Fast-Start Fault Recovery
Overview of Real Application Clusters
Oracle Solutions to Data Failures
Overview of Backup and Recovery Features for High Availability
Overview of Partitioning
Overview of Transparent Application Failover
Oracle Solutions to Disasters
Overview of Oracle Data Guard
Oracle Solutions to Human Errors
Overview of Oracle Flashback Features
Overview of LogMiner
Overview of Security Features for High Availability
Overview of Planned Downtime
System Maintenance
Data Maintenance
Database Maintenance

18 Partitioned Tables and Indexes

Introduction to Partitioning
Partition Key
Partitioned Tables
Partitioned Index-Organized Tables
Overview of Partitioning Methods
Range Partitioning
Range Partitioning Example
List Partitioning
List Partitioning Example
Hash Partitioning
Hash Partitioning Example
Composite Partitioning
Composite Partitioning Range-Hash Example
Composite Partitioning Range-List Example
When to Partition a Table
Overview of Partitioned Indexes
Local Partitioned Indexes
Global Partitioned Indexes
Global Range Partitioned Indexes
Global Hash Partitioned Indexes
Maintenance of Global Partitioned Indexes
Global Nonpartitioned Indexes
Miscellaneous Information about Creating Indexes on Partitioned Tables
Using Partitioned Indexes in OLTP Applications
Using Partitioned Indexes in Data Warehousing and DSS Applications
Partitioned Indexes on Composite Partitions
Partitioning to Improve Performance
Partition Pruning
Partition Pruning Example
Partition-wise Joins
Parallel DML

19 Content Management

Introduction to Content Management
Overview of XML in Oracle
Overview of LOBs
Overview of Oracle Text
Oracle Text Index Types
Oracle Text Document Services
Oracle Text Query Package
Oracle Text Advanced Features
Overview of Oracle Ultra Search
Overview of Oracle interMedia
Overview of Oracle Spatial

20 Database Security

Introduction to Database Security
Database Users and Schemas
Security Domain
Storage Settings and Quotas
Default Tablespace
Temporary Tablespace
Tablespace Quotas
Profiles and Resource Limits
Overview of Authentication Methods
Authentication by the Operating System
Authentication by the Network
Third Party-Based Authentication Technologies
Public-Key-Infrastructure-Based Authentication
Remote Authentication
Authentication by the Oracle Database
Password Encryption While Connecting
Account Locking
Password Lifetime and Expiration
Password Complexity Verification
Multitier Authentication and Authorization
Authentication by the Secure Socket Layer Protocol
Authentication of Database Administrators
Overview of Authorization
User Resource Limits and Profiles
Types of System Resources and Limits
Introduction to Privileges
System Privileges
Schema Object Privileges
Introduction to Roles
Common Uses for Roles
Role Mechanisms
The Operating System and Roles
Secure Application Roles
Overview of Access Restrictions on Tables, Views, Synonyms, or Rows
Fine-Grained Access Control
Dynamic Predicates
Application Context
Dynamic Contexts
Fine-Grained Auditing
Overview of Security Policies
System Security Policy
Database User Management
User Authentication
Operating System Security
Data Security Policy
User Security Policy
General User Security
End-User Security
Administrator Security
Application Developer Security
Application Administrator Security
Password Management Policy
Auditing Policy
Overview of Database Auditing
Types and Records of Auditing
Audit Records and the Audit Trails

21 Data Integrity

Introduction to Data Integrity
Types of Data Integrity
Null Rule
Unique Column Values
Primary Key Values
Referential Integrity Rules
Complex Integrity Checking
How Oracle Enforces Data Integrity
Integrity Constraints Description
Database Triggers
Overview of Integrity Constraints
Advantages of Integrity Constraints
Declarative Ease
Centralized Rules
Maximum Application Development Productivity
Immediate User Feedback
Superior Performance
Flexibility for Data Loads and Identification of Integrity Violations
The Performance Cost of Integrity Constraints
Types of Integrity Constraints
NOT NULL Integrity Constraints
UNIQUE Key Integrity Constraints
Unique Keys
UNIQUE Key Constraints and Indexes
Combine UNIQUE Key and NOT NULL Integrity Constraints
PRIMARY KEY Integrity Constraints
Primary Keys
PRIMARY KEY Constraints and Indexes
Referential Integrity Constraints
Self-Referential Integrity Constraints
Nulls and Foreign Keys
Actions Defined by Referential Integrity Constraints
Concurrency Control, Indexes, and Foreign Keys
CHECK Integrity Constraints
The Check Condition
Multiple CHECK Constraints
The Mechanisms of Constraint Checking
Default Column Values and Integrity Constraint Checking
Deferred Constraint Checking
Constraint Attributes
Unique Constraints and Indexes
Constraint States
Constraint State Modification

22 Triggers

Introduction to Triggers
How Triggers Are Used
Some Cautionary Notes about Triggers
Triggers Compared with Declarative Integrity Constraints
Parts of a Trigger
The Triggering Event or Statement
Trigger Restriction
Trigger Action
Types of Triggers
Row Triggers and Statement Triggers
Row Triggers
Statement Triggers
BEFORE and AFTER Triggers
BEFORE Triggers
AFTER Triggers
Trigger Type Combinations
Modify Views
Views That Are Not Modifiable
INSTEAD OF Triggers on Nested Tables
Triggers on System Events and User Events
Event Publication
Event Attributes
System Events
User Events
Trigger Execution
The Execution Model for Triggers and Integrity Constraint Checking
Data Access for Triggers
Storage of PL/SQL Triggers
Execution of Triggers
Dependency Maintenance for Triggers

Part IV Oracle Database Application Development

23 Information Integration

Introduction to Oracle Information Integration
Federated Access
Distributed SQL
Location Transparency
SQL and COMMIT Transparency
Distributed Query Optimization
Information Sharing
Oracle Streams
Oracle Streams Architecture
Replication with Oracle Streams
Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing
Change Data Capture
Heterogeneous Environments
Oracle Streams Use Cases
Materialized Views
Integrating Non-Oracle Systems
Generic Connectivity
Oracle Transparent Gateways

24 SQL, PL/SQL, and Java

Overview of SQL
SQL Statements
Data Manipulation Language Statements
Data Definition Language Statements
Transaction Control Statements
Session Control Statements
System Control Statements
Embedded SQL Statements
Scrollable Cursors
Shared SQL
SQL Processing
SQL Statement Execution
DML Statement Processing
DDL Statement Processing
Control of Transactions
Overview of the Optimizer
Execution Plans
Overview of Procedural Languages
Overview of PL/SQL
How PL/SQL Runs
Language Constructs for PL/SQL
PL/SQL Program Units
Stored Procedures and Functions
PL/SQL Packages
PL/SQL Collections and Records
PL/SQL Server Pages
Overview of Java
Java and Object-Oriented Programming Terminology
Class Hierarchy
Overview of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
Why Use Java in Oracle?
Oracle's Java Application Strategy

25 Overview of Application Development Languages

Introduction to Oracle Application Development Languages
Overview of C/C++ Programming Languages
Overview of Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
Overview of Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI)
OCCI Associative Relational and Object Interfaces
OCCI Navigational Interface
Overview of Oracle Type Translator
Overview of Pro*C/C++ Precompiler
Dynamic Creation and Access of Type Descriptions
Overview of Microsoft Programming Languages
Open Database Connectivity
Overview of Oracle Objects for OLE
OO4O Automation Server
Oracle Data Control
The Oracle Objects for OLE C++ Class Library
Oracle Data Provider for .NET
Overview of Legacy Languages
Overview of Pro*Cobol Precompiler
Overview of Pro*FORTRAN Precompiler

26 Native Datatypes

Introduction to Oracle Datatypes
Overview of Character Datatypes
CHAR Datatype
VARCHAR2 and VARCHAR Datatypes
VARCHAR Datatype
Length Semantics for Character Datatypes
NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 Datatypes
Use of Unicode Data in an Oracle Database
Implicit Type Conversion
LOB Character Datatypes
LONG Datatype
Overview of Numeric Datatypes
NUMBER Datatype
Internal Numeric Format
Floating-Point Numbers
Overview of DATE Datatype
Use of Julian Dates
Date Arithmetic
Centuries and the Year 2000
Daylight Savings Support
Time Zones
Overview of LOB Datatypes
BLOB Datatype
CLOB and NCLOB Datatypes
BFILE Datatype
Overview of RAW and LONG RAW Datatypes
Overview of ROWID and UROWID Datatypes
The ROWID Pseudocolumn
Physical Rowids
Extended Rowids
Restricted Rowids
Examples of Rowid Use
How Rowids Are Used
Logical Rowids
Comparison of Logical Rowids with Physical Rowids
Guesses in Logical Rowids
Rowids in Non-Oracle Databases
Overview of ANSI, DB2, and SQL/DS Datatypes
Overview of XML Datatypes
XMLType Datatype
Overview of URI Datatypes
Overview of Data Conversion

27 Object Datatypes and Object Views

Introduction to Object Datatypes
Complex Data Models
Multimedia Datatypes
Overview of Object Datatype Categories
Object Types
Types of Methods
Object Tables
Object Identifiers
Object Views Description
Collection Types
Nested Tables
Overview of Type Inheritance
NOT INSTANTIABLE Types and Methods
Overview of User-Defined Aggregate Functions
Why Have User-Defined Aggregate Functions?
Overview of Datatype Evolution
Introduction to Object Views
Advantages of Object Views
Use of Object Views
Updates of Object Views
Updates of Nested Table Columns in Views
View Hierarchies